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Are Quarter Horses prone to PSSM?

There are two types of PSSM, with Quarter horses more prone to PSSM 1. PSSM 1 is connected with the semi-dominant variant of the GYS1 gene. The variant of the enzyme is overactive, leading to excess glycogen storage in muscle tissue.

Can a horse have PSSM without the GYS1 mutation?

Some horses with PSSM do not have the genetic mutation and are called type 2 PSSM cases. There is ongoing research to learn more about these horses. Valberg said about 28% of cases of PSSM diagnosed by muscle biopsy in Quarter Horses do not have the GYS1 mutation.

Which horse breeds are susceptible to PSSM?

Is a Particular Horse Breed Susceptible to PSSM? 1 American Quarter Horses. 2 American Paint Horses. 3 Appaloosa Horses. 4 Thoroughbreds. 5 Dales Ponies. 6 Cob Horses. 7 Arabian Horses.

What causes Type 2 PSSM in horses?

The type-2 PSSM is still a condition as the exact causes are unknown. In type-2 PSSM, glycogen deposited in the muscle cell abnormally and is not a normal phenomenon. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis is the result of PSSM in horses that may affect all breeds of horses.

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How to test for PSSM in horses?

Testing. You can test your horse for PSSM 1 through the University of Minnesota’s Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Here they can perform DNA blood or hair tests. Muscle biopsies are required to test for PSSM 2. You should consider a muscle biopsy for horses with muscle pain if they test negative for PSSM 1.

What causes pssm-2 in horses?

PSSM-2 doesn’t have a surefire cause, but it is diagnosed through a muscle biopsy. If glycogen is clumped into the muscle fiber and cell membranes, these horses would be PSSM-2 positive. Is a Particular Horse Breed Susceptible to PSSM? Even though all it takes are the right genetics to contract PSSM, it is prevalent in certain breeds.

What breeds are affected by PSSM?

Breeds affected include Dutch Warmblood, Swedish Warmblood, Hanoverian, Friesian, Selle Francais, Westfalian, Canadian Warmblood, Irish Sport Horse, Gerdlander, Hussien, and Icelandic horses. Many other light breeds have also been diagnosed with type 2 PSSM including Morgans, Standardbreds, and Thoroughbreds.

What kind of horse has PSSM Type 1?

Decision tree for Diagnostic Testing of PSSM courtesy of University of Minnesota. Type 1 is found in over 20 breeds and commonly affects Quarter Horses, Quarter Horse-related breeds, Morgans, some Draft breeds and some warmbloods.

How do you test for PSSM in horses?

Blood or hair samples can be used to test for PSSM, MH, and other genetic diseases of horses. Muscle biopsies might be needed to definitively diagnose a problem.

What is pssm-2 in horses?

PSSM-2 doesn’t have a surefire cause, but it is diagnosed through a muscle biopsy. If glycogen is clumped into the muscle fiber and cell membranes, these horses would be PSSM-2 positive. Is a Particular Horse Breed Susceptible to PSSM?

Can PSSM be prevented in horses?

Unfortunately, since PSSM is genetic, horses receive the defect from their parents. The only real way to prevent PSSM is to avoid breeding a horse diagnosed with PSSM-1. PSSM-2 hasn’t revealed a direct cause, but breeding is still ill-advised.

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When was PSSM first reported in horses?

In 1992, Valberg first reported PSSM as a distinct muscle disease in horses. Her reports were based on finding abnormal polysaccharide in skeletal muscle biopsies.

How does type 1 PSSM affect horses?

A horse only needs one copy of the GYS1 gene mutation to be affected by Type 1 PSSM. The GYS1 gene plays a role in glycogen production. A mutation in this gene causes the muscle cells to continually make glycogen. As a horse exercises, they aren’t able to use this extra glycogen for energy.

How do you diagnose pssm2 in horses?

There is currently no scientifically validated diagnostic test for PSSM2. A muscle biopsy may be taken to evaluate muscle damage and measure the amount of glycogen in the muscle. There are other causes for tying-up other than PSSM, so it is important to rule these out to ensure the horse is treated appropriately.

What causes muscle cramps in horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy?

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) PSSM is a disorder that causes muscle cramping in horses from abnormal glycogen (sugar) storage in the muscles. Sore muscles, muscle weakness and cramping are all signs of PSSM. Type 1 PSSM is caused by a mutation in the GYS1 gene.

How to diagnose GYS1 gene in horses?

Muscle biopsies can be done for the presence of glycogen in the muscle cells. Diagnosis of the GYS1 gene by in some reputed Equine Laboratory in the United States and Europe like Michigan University Equine Neuromuscular Diagnostic Laboratory, University of California, Laboklin in Europe.

What is the pathophysiology of type 2 PSSM?

In Type 2 PSSM, an abnormal distribution of glycogen in the muscle makes it appear on histological examination that there is too much glycogen stored in the muscle cells. Simply put, the building blocks of the muscle cells can no longer be produced correctly, and so the muscle will become increasingly weaker.

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What is pssm2 in horses?

In essence, a diagnosis of PSSM2 represents those horses in which a muscle biopsy shows clumping of muscle glycogen yet they do not have type 1 PSSM based on genetic testing. We do not know what causes PSSM2 and for the most part recommendations for type 2 PSSM have been the same as those for type 1 PSSM.

Why does my horse keep getting PSSM?

A horse with Type 2 PSSM needs much more protein compared to a healthy horse, because its body is constantly trying to supply the muscles with proteins. However, a protein deficiency in stressful situations, such as when the horse is injured or ill and requires more protein, will trigger Type 2 PSSM episodes in affected horses.

What is PSSM type-1?

PSSM Type-1 has been identified as a genetic mutation in a gene responsible for glycogen storage in the muscles of horses, glycogen synthase 1 ( GYS1 ). This is a dominant trait, thus only one parent (sire or dam) needs to be a carrier to pass it on to their offspring.

How often does a horse with PSSM have an episode?

Most horses with PSSM have a history of numerous episodes of muscle stiffness at the beginning of training; however, mildly affected horses may have only one or two episodes per year. Episodes of muscle pain and stiffness can be quite severe, resulting in a horse being unable to stand and being uncomfortable even when lying down.

What breed of horse has PSSM type-1?

Today, there are approximately 20 horse breeds that can carry the GYS1 gene mutation that causes PSSM Type-1. These are primarily those breeds with an American Quarter Horse (QH) lineage, or draft horses and warmbloods from continental Europe.