What is the difference between fetal bovine serum and horse serum?

Horses

What are cotyledonary placenta in horses?

Seen in horses and pigs. Cotyledonary: Multiple, discrete areas of attachment called cotyledons are formed by interaction of patches of allantochorion with endometrium. The fetal portions of this type of placenta are called cotyledons, the maternal contact sites (caruncles), and the cotyledon-caruncle complex a placentome.

What is the difference between fetal blood and maternal blood?

Classification Based on Layers Between Fetal and Maternal Blood. In humans, fetal chorionic epithelium is bathed in maternal blood because chorionic villi have eroded through maternal endothelium. In contrast, the chorionic epithelium of horse and pig fetuses remains separated from maternal blood by 3 layers of tissue.

What is the difference between bovine and cattle?

is that bovine is an animal of the family bovidae , including cattle, buffaloes and bison while cattle is domesticated bovine animals (cows, bulls, steers etc). is (not comparable) of or pertaining to cattle.

What is the placenta of a horse?

Placentation in Horses. Implantation and Fetal Membranes. Early in gestation, between roughly day 12 and 15, the equine embryo is round and moves freely throughout the lumen of both uterine horns in response to uterine contractions.

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What are cotyledonary placentae in animals?

2. Cotyledonary placentae, common to ungulates such as cows, deer, goat, and giraffe, have their villi clumped together into circular patches called cotyledons. The fetal cotyledon meets with maternal regions called caruncles to form the placentome where maternal-fetal exchanges take place. ( “buttons”)

What type of placenta do ruminants have?

Ruminants have a cotyledonary placenta. Instead of having a single large area of contact between maternal and fetal vascular systems, these animals have numerous smaller placentae. The terminology used to describe ruminant placentation is: Cotyledon: the fetal side of the placenta.

Do deer have cotyledonary placenta?

Deer also have a cotyledonary placenta, but only 4 to 6 placentomes which are correspondingly larger. During parturition, there is substantial loosening of the cotyledonary villi from caruncles, and the placentomes expand laterally.

Why is fetal hemoglobin higher than maternal hemoglobin?

This is because the hemoglobin concentration in fetal blood is about 50% higher than in maternal blood, and the majority of hemoglobin in the fetus is fetal hemoglobin, which has a higher oxygen carrying capacity than adult hemoglobin. Carbon dioxide is produced abundantly in the fetus, and the P CO2 of fetal blood is higher than maternal blood.

What is the difference between maternal and fetal oxygen levels?

In late pregnancy, the mean partial pressure of oxygen (P 02) in maternal blood is considerably higher than in fetal blood. As a consequence, oxygen readily diffuses across the placenta from maternal to fetal blood. Despite its low P O2, fetal blood is able to transport essentially the same quantity of oxygen to tissues as maternal blood.

How does the placenta transport blood to the fetus?

Such transport is facilitated by the close approximation of maternal and fetal vascular systems within the placenta. It is important to recognize that there normally is no mixing of fetal and maternal blood within the placenta.

Are cows and heifers the same?

Freemartin: Infertile or sterile heifer/heifer calf. Even though cows, bulls, heifers, and steers belong to the same group of animals, they’re not all the same. Both cows and heifers are female bovine, whereas bulls and steers are male bovine. The distinctions between these terms become even more subtle from there.

What is the meaning of the word cattle?

Domesticated bovine animals (cows, bulls, steers etc). ‘Do you want to raise cattle?’; domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age; as, wait till the cows come home. Certain other livestock, such as sheep, pigs or horses. Used in restricted contexts to refer to the meat derived from cattle.

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What are the general aspects of placental transport in horses?

General aspects aspects of placental transport are similar to that seen in other species. Immunoglobulins are not transported across the placenta from dam to fetus, and therefore, barring fetal infections, the foal is born without circulating antibodies.

How much does a horse’s placenta weigh?

The normal placenta of the near-term thoroughbred mare should weigh about 11% of the body weight of the foal or approximately 5.7 + 0.08 kg (12.5 lbs) (2). Placenta weights are important indicators of edema and reactions to infectious and non-infectious agents that may affect foal mortality.

What part of the placenta is retained in a horse?

The most common part of the placenta to be retained is the area of the chorioallantois where it attached to the tip of the non-gravid horn. This section of the mare’s system has larger, more branched villi with additional placental folds causing it to be attached more securely and not as easily released.

Does the horse placenta produce progesterone?

Progestins: The equine placenta appears not to synthesize progesterone. However, it secretes copious quantities of progestins (5-alpha-pregnanes), which serve the same function for maintainance of pregnancy. Toward the end of gestation, blood levels of these progestins are typically 100 times the maximal level of progesterone.

How many cotyledons are in a cow placenta?

Patches of chorioallantoic membrane become cotyledons by developing villi that extend into crypts in the caruncular epithelium. Pregnant sheep, goats and cattle have between 75 and 125 placentomes. Deer also have a cotyledonary placenta, but only 4 to 6 placentomes which are correspondingly larger.

What is the structure of the placenta in cattle?

There is close attachment between embryonic membranes and the endometrium overlying caruncles at 5 weeks in cattle and 3 weeks in sheep. Shortly thereafter, the placenta is established. Gross Structure of the Placenta Ruminants have a cotyledonary placenta.

What are the types of placenta in animals?

The placentae of horses, ruminants and pigs are described as apposed and non‐deciduate; in humans, dogs, cats and rodents, they are conjoined and deciduate. Histological classification of placentation Based on the number of tissue layers interposed between the foetal and maternal bloodstream, four basic types of placentation can be described.

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What is zonary placenta in animals?

This type of placentation is observed in ruminants. Zonary: The placenta takes the form of a complete or incomplete band of tissue surrounding the fetus. Seen in carnivores like dogs and cats, seals, bears, and elephants. Discoid: A single placenta is formed and is discoid in shape.

What type of placenta do horses have?

For example, horses and pigs have many small contacts spread over the entire surface of the fetal membranes and this form of placenta is termed a diffuse placenta. Ruminants have 15-120 button-like contact regions between the fetal membranes and the endometrium and this type of placenta is called a cotyledonary placenta.

Do cattle have placentomes in the uterine horn?

Cattle almost always have a single fetus, and, although the fetus is located in one horn or the other, the large chorioallantosis fills both uterine horns, and placentomes are present throughout the uterus. During parturition, there is substantial loosening of the cotyledonary villi from caruncles, and the placentomes expand laterally.

How many placenta does a cow have?

Placentation in Ruminants (Cattle, sheep, ..) Bovine placentomes looks similar, but have a convex appearance rather than the concave shape seen in sheep. Pregnant sheep, goats and cattle have between 75 and 125 placentomes. Deer also have a cotyledonary placenta, but only 4 to 6 placentomes which are correspondingly larger.

Can fetal blood get into the mother’s bloodstream?

Entry of small amounts of fetal blood into the maternal circulation does occasionally occur, and can evoke an immune response in the mother that affects that fetus after birth or fetuses in subsequent pregnancies that are sired by the same father.

What happens to oxygen in the placenta during pregnancy?

As a consequence, oxygen readily diffuses across the placenta from maternal to fetal blood. Despite its low PO2, fetal blood is able to transport essentially the same quantity of oxygen to tissues as maternal blood.

What are the different terms for cattle?

There are a lot of technical terms that refer to the cattle’s age, gender, offspring, and more. Four of the most important terms to know include cow, bull, heifer, and steer. To learn what each of these terms mean and how to tell what your cattle is, keep reading. Cow: Mature female that has given birth to at least one calf.