How do reptiles get their calcium?

Reptiles

Can I use reptile calcium and multivitamins?

For best results, buy your reptile calcium and multivitamin from the same brand. Miner-ALL is made from human-grade calcium as well as 50 vital trace minerals to ensuring optimum health and bone strength.

Do reptiles have high triglycerides?

During this time, lab results in female reptiles frequently reveals high levels of triglycerides, hypercholesterolemia, and hypercalcemia. Triggers for ovulation are poorly understood in the reptile, but when ovulation > does occur, oocytes enter the oviduct and become fertilized.

What can affect a reptile’s calcium level?

They also mention there are other factors which can affect the calcium readings, such as age, sex, and reproductive status of the animal in question. Hypercalcemia is a serious condition where there is too much calcium in the bloodstream, and it may cause serious health issues in reptiles.

What causes high calcium levels in female snakes?

Female reptiles may have increased calcium levels of two to fourfold during times of reproductive activity. Mobilisation from bone results from increased oestrogen activity and calcium levels return to normal after egg laying. Persistently high calcium (and phosphorus) may be normal in indigo snakes.

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Why do reptiles get debilitated?

Consequently reptiles are often presented to veterinary clinics in an advanced state of debilitation. Reptiles are commonly kept under suboptimal conditions leading to stress and maladaptation. Common causes are inappropriate food, low temperatures and competition from tank mates.

What is the normal phosphorus level in reptiles?

The metabolism of phosphorus and its blood levels are closely linked to those of calcium. Most reptiles have a range between 1.0–3.0 mmol/l. Young, growing reptiles may have higher blood phosphorus levels than adults.

What is a normal total protein level in reptiles?

Total protein. In normal reptiles, total protein (TP) values generally vary between 30–80 g/l; hypoproteinaemia and hyperproteinaemia are usually indicators of disease. Measurement of TP is an important diagnostic test but perhaps more useful is protein electrophoresis which separates the fractions.

What is the normal range of bile acid in reptiles?

Bile acids have been poorly studied and are currently poor diagnostic indicators but further use and research may indicate their usefulness. Normal upper limits of bile acids levels in reptiles vary between 10 and 70 µmol/l. Bile acid levels in reptiles may be indicators of reduced hepatic function.

What happens when a dog’s potassium is high?

Conversely, if his potassium level climbs too high, your dog is suffering from hyperkalemia. Your dog’s potassium level is determined by performing a blood chemistry profile. Your dog’s kidneys are responsible for filtering wastes from your dog’s blood so that they may be expelled from your dog’s body when he urinates.

What is the calcium to phosphorus ratio in reptiles?

The widely accepted range of ratios for calcium to phosphorus in the reptilian diet are as follows: Between 1.5:1 and 2:1. Therein lies the problem. Take for example, the common cricket. It has a calcium to phosphorus ratio of .33:1.

What is a normal uric acid level in reptiles?

The blood level is therefore largely independent of urine flow rate (and is therefore not a sensitive indicator of dehydration in reptiles or birds). Both animal and environmental factors influence uric acid levels. The normal blood uric acid value for most reptiles is 0 to 600 µmol/l.

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What are bile acids used for in reptiles?

Bile acids (3α-hydroxy bile acids) have been scientifically evaluated for clinical use in relatively few reptile species (see Table 67.1 ). 71 Nonetheless they are commonly assayed and used as an indicator of hepatic dysfunction when fasted values are >60 µmol/L (>24.5 µg/mL) (see Chapter 67 ).

How many carbon atoms are in a bile acid?

They have 24 carbon atoms and are abbreviated as C24bile acids, in contraposition to “primitive” bile acids, which have 25-27 carbon atoms (C27, C26, C25bile acids) and are present in the bile acid pool of primitive (e.g. coelacanth and sharks) and less primitive (e.g. reptiles and amphibians) vertebrates.

Is hypokalemia life threatening in dogs?

Hypokalemia can be life-threatening, so if your dog has a condition that may cause low potassium, it is important to recognize the symptoms and contact your veterinarian. Potassium plays a critical role in muscle and nerve function, as well as maintaining proper fluid balance.

What is potassium in dog food?

Potassium is an electrolyte that is found in the cells and in the blood of your dog’s body. An ideal potassium level is essential for controlling your dog’s nerve impulses, brain function and muscle activity.

What causes low potassium in dogs with kidney failure?

Kidney failure is one of the most common causes of low potassium in dogs. The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste from the body and they help to maintain a balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body. Kidney failure usually progresses gradually and symptoms are easy to miss in the early stages.

What is the difference between reptiles and gout?

Reptiles excrete nitrogen waste as uric acid, which is removed from the circulating blood by the kidneys. In gout, this uric acid is not eliminated effectively.

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What is the difference between uric acid and gout?

Gout is a disease in which the metabolism of uric acid is defective. Uric acid is a breakdown product of nitrogen, formed when protein is metabolized in the body. Reptiles excrete nitrogen waste as uric acid, which is removed from the circulating blood by the kidneys.

What is considered a high level of uric acid?

Elevated concentrations of uric acid in serum (hyperuricemia defined by serum uric acid concentration >7 mg/dL in men and >6 mg/dL in women), or elevated urinary uric acid concentrations (hyperuricosuria) can lead to gout and uric acid nephrolithiasis and increase the risk for hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease.

What are bile acids made of?

The bile acids are a collection of detergent-like compounds (predominantly cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in mammals). The primary bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and are secreted in bile to aid in digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins.

Why do reptiles and birds produce uric acid instead of ammonia?

Why is it advantageous for the embryos of reptiles and birds to produce uric acid instead of ammonia? – Uric acid is relatively nontoxic and won’t harm the developing embryo as it is stored inside of the egg. Ammonia is far more toxic and could cause developmental problems if it was confined to the interior of an egg alongside of the embryo.

What is bile acid synthesis in mammals and birds?

• Bile acid synthesis in mammals and birds occurs in the liver and is the primary pathway in the metabolism of cholesterol, which is the precursor molecule for bile acid synthesis.

What is the pathophysiology of bile acid synthesis?

Physiology. • Bile acid synthesis in mammals and birds occurs in the liver and is the primary pathway in the metabolism of cholesterol, which is the precursor molecule for bile acid synthesis. • Bile acids are conjugated in the liver, to glycine or taurine, to inhibit intestinal bile acid resorption and promote lipid metabolism.