How do reptiles get metabolic bone disease?

Reptiles

What causes respiratory infections in reptiles?

The combination of stress from improper diet, humidity levels or temperature gradients, and a dirty environment will often weaken and overwhelm a reptile’s immune system, which can lead to respiratory infections and other disorders.

Why does my turtle keep getting respiratory infections?

Respiratory infections are very common when reptiles are kept in dirty environments or do not have access to proper temperature gradients and/or humidity levels. Poor diet, parasitism, illness, and in turtles, a lack of vitamin A in the diet, can also play a role.

Do reptiles have a positive or negative respiratory system?

Respiratory System. They require positive pressure breathing to respire because they are less complex animals compared to mammals or even reptiles and do not have a diaphragm or ribs to make negative pressure breathing even possible. Most reptiles possess large lungs since they are terrestrial, which are divided into chambers.

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Why is respiratory diseases of reptiles 215 contraindicated?

Respiratory Diseases of Reptiles 215 is contraindicated in chelonians as it causes potentially fatal paresis or paralysis. Noninfectious Agents A variety of noninfectious conditions may cause signs of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Foreign bodies are sometimes found to cause acute respiratory distress, especially in lizards and chelonians.

Do turtles get colds and infections?

All product links on this page are monetized. Turtles have lungs and breathe air; and just like any other animals with lungs, they can get colds and respiratory infections (“RIs”). These can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, so the proper treatment depends on the type of germ that’s causing the infection.

What are the most common diseases and injuries in turtles?

List of Turtle Diseases Illnesses and Injuries 1 Find Your Problem. 2 Superficial Wounds. This is especially the case when it comes to turtles and tortoises… 3 Respiratory Infections. Respiratory infections are one of the more common illnesses… 4 Diarrhea. A bout of diarrhea is a clear signs that your turtle is not feeling well.

What kind of respiratory infection does a tortoise have?

Respiratory Infections. Tortoises can get infections and disease in their lungs, throat or head. caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or even poor husbandry- things like poor diet or low temps.

Why do reptiles require positive pressure breathing to respire?

They require positive pressure breathing to respire because they are less complex animals compared to mammals or even reptiles and do not have a diaphragm or ribs to make negative pressure breathing even possible. Most reptiles possess large lungs since they are terrestrial, which are divided into chambers.

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Do all reptiles breathe with lungs?

All reptiles breathe using lungs. Aquatic turtles have developed more permeable skin, and some species have modified their cloaca to increase the area for gas exchange. Even with these adaptations, breathing is never fully accomplished without lungs. Furthermore, do reptiles have negative pressure breathing?

What is mycobacteriosis in reptiles?

Mycobacteriosis is a sporadic disease in captured reptiles. With respect to the published data, the low prevalence of the infection and the ubiquitous presence of mycobacteria in the environment are suggestive of natural resistance to these opportunistic pathogens (Brownstein 1984; Jacobson 2007).

Why is it difficult to diagnose and treat Clostridium in reptiles?

Clinical diagnosis in reptiles can be difficult due to the non-specific clinical signs of the disease and treatment is often unsuccessful.

What causes respiratory tract disease in reptiles?

Noninfectious Agents A variety of noninfectious conditions may cause signs of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Foreign bodies are sometimes found to cause acute respiratory distress, especially in lizards and chelonians.

What are the limitations of ultrasonography in reptiles?

Ultrasound waves cannot penetrate through mineralized tissue or air and, therefore, ultrasonography has obvious limitations to investigate respiratory and GI diseases. Giant species require a 5-MHz probe, whereas a 7.5- or 12-MHz probe will suffice for most reptiles.

Are amphibians and reptiles poikilothermicanimals?

Fish, amphibians, and reptiles are poikilothermicanimals: their core temperature varies with environmental conditions and they have limited ability (compared with birds and mammals) to metabolically maintain core temperature.

What is respiratory disease in reptiles?

Respiratory disease is one of the most commonly encountered disease processes in collections of captive reptiles. In many cases, improper husbandry techniques, including too high or too low temperatures, inadequate humidity, and poor nutrition will compromise the reptile’s immune system and its response to potential pathogens.

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Why does my Xray show a bad image of my reptile?

The relatively small size of most pet reptiles and the lack of diffuse body fat often produce images of poor contrast. Thick, highly keratinized scales, osteoderms, or shells can severely hinder the x-ray beam, necessitating greater power and a subsequent loss of fine soft-tissue detail.

Why is it so difficult to obtain radiographs of pet reptiles?

Several anatomic differences make it difficult to obtain quality radiographs in reptiles. The relatively small size of most pet reptiles and the lack of diffuse body fat often produce images of poor contrast.

How to evaluate urinary tract disease in reptiles?

The use of radiographs, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MRI, and endoscopy is discussed and compared for the evaluation of urinary tract disease in reptiles. you can request a copy directly from the authors.

What is hepatic lipidosis in turtles?

Hepatic lipidosis is a clinical condition commonly diagnosed in reptiles, particularly in turtles. In fact, it is a metabolic condition rather tan a true disease. The factors influencing such condition are the following (Divers & Cooper 2000):

What should be included in a clinical examination of a reptile?

A full clinical examination should be performed and the animal accurately weighed, although this may not be practical or possible in some cases. The hydration status of all reptiles should be assessed, especially if debilitated or post-hibernation.

What is respiratory tract infection in reptiles?

Respiratory Tract Infection in Reptiles ©1999 Melissa Kaplan In reptiles, respiratory tract infection (RTI) are caused by a bacterial infection in the lungs.