How big do zebra pleco grow?


How big do zebras get in a pond?

Zebra Danio Size This species can grow up to 2 inches in length. However, they can grow larger than this when kept in ponds instead of indoor aquariums. This is most likely due to the larger amount of space and natural food sources which a pond provides.

How big is the genome of a zebrafish?

In 2009, researchers at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology in Delhi, India, announced the sequencing of the genome of a wild zebrafish strain, containing an estimated 1.7 billion genetic letters.

How does GRCz11 change the zebrafish genome assembly?

GRCz11 shows a significant reduction in scaffold numbers and increase in scaffold N50 whilst the overall genome size was not affected. For the first time in a zebrafish assembly, GRCz11 also features alternate loci scaffolds (ALT_REF_LOCI) for representations of variant sequences.

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“The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome”. Nature. 496 (7446): 498–503. Bibcode: 2013Natur.496..498H. doi: 10.1038/nature12111. PMC 3703927. PMID 23594743. ^ a b Broughton RE, Milam JE, Roe BA (November 2001).

How many base pairs of DNA does a zebrafish have?

The haploid zebrafish genome has 25 chromosomes, most of which are difficult to distinguish. These chromosomes contain about 1.7 X l0 9 base pairs of DNA, about half the mammalian genome size.

How many genes do fish have in their genomes?

This number is somewhat less than the core set of 11,809 vertebrate genes identified previously as being common to three fish genomes ( Tetraodon, medaka, zebrafish) and three amniotes (human, mouse, chicken) 16, but the discrepancy probably reflects the improved annotation of these genomes that often results in fusing fragmented gene structures.

Does the zebrafish genome have a BRCA1 orthologue?

Similarly, the zebrafish genome has no BRCA1 orthologue, but does have an orthologue of the BRCA1 -associated BARD1 gene, which encodes an associated and functionally similar protein and a brca2 gene, which plays an important role in oocyte development, probably reflecting its role in DNA damage repair 15.

Why sequence the zebrafish genome?

Since the earliest whole-genome shotgun-only assembly became public in 2002, the zebrafish reference genome sequence has enabled many new discoveries to be made, in particular the positional cloning of hundreds of genes from mutations affecting embryogenesis, behaviour, physiology, and health and disease.

Do zebrafish undergo more intrachromosomal rearrangements after TGD than other lineages?

Some analysts had suggested that the zebrafish genome experienced more intrachromosomal rearrangements, such as inversions or transpositions, after the TGD than other fish lineages ( Semon & Wolfe, 2007 ).

Are functional control elements annotated in the zebrafish genome?

The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) has been widely used in the study of human disease and development, and about 70% of the protein-coding genes are conserved between the two species 1. However, studies in zebrafish remain constrained by the sparse annotation of functional control elements in the zebrafish genome.

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What is the zebrafish genome project?

The zebrafish genome project at the Wellcome Sanger Institute produced the zebrafish reference assembly of the Tuebingen strain. After the release of Zv9, the project joined the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) for further improvement and ongoing maintenance.

What can we learn from zebrafish genome sequencing?

Zebrafish turns out to have the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced, and few pseudogenes. Importantly for disease studies, comparison between human and zebrafish sequences reveals that 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue.

Why sequence the genome of fish?

Understanding the function of these genes in fish will help clarify their roles in humans. The sequenced genome also permits “whole-genome/transcriptome” studies, in which, for example, the activity of all genes in response to an experimental treatment can be monitored.

Do repetitive elements affect the size of the fish genome?

In contrast, the expansion of repetitive elements may have contributed to the expansion of fish genome sizes as observed in our analysis, fish genome sizes, with exceptions, were found to be well correlated with their contents of repetitive elements.

How many fish species have had their genomes sequenced?

So far, more than 40 fish species have had their genomes sequenced, including model species such as the zebrafish ( Howe et al., 2013) and medaka ( Takeda, 2008 ).

Why do we use zebrafish as models for genome editing?

In recent years, fish species, especially the model species such as the zebrafish, have played important roles in testing new protocols of genome editing because of the biological advantages of fish models. A large number of genes have been disrupted or modified in fish species for functional studies, especially those involved in reproduction.

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Why study genome editing in fish?

These sequenced genomes and the availability of genome editing technologies are now providing tremendous potential for functional studies of genes in a variety of fish species for both science and application. The knockout approach also allows scientists to revisit many of the genes that have been studied with MO-based gene knockdown.

Why do zebrafish have more genes than other vertebrates?

Zebrafish possess 26,206 protein-coding genes 6, more than any previously sequenced vertebrate, and they have a higher number of species-specific genes in their genome than do human, mouse or chicken. Some of this increased gene number is likely to be a consequence of the TSD. A direct comparison of the zebrafish and human protein-coding genes

What is a large-scale zebrafish gene knockout resource?

A large-scale zebrafish gene knockout resource for the genome-wide study of gene function. Genome Res. 23, 727–735 (2013) Freeman, J. L. et al. Definition of the zebrafish genome using flow cytometry and cytogenetic mapping.

How many zebrafish orthologies are in human genes?

Importantly for disease studies, comparison between human and zebrafish sequences reveals that 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. A second paper reports on an ongoing effort to identify and phenotype disruptive mutations in every zebrafish protein-coding gene.

What data does the zebrafish Genomes Project release?

The Zebrafish Genomes Project releases sequence data and variant calls as a service to the research community. These data are released in accordance with the Fort Lauderdale agreement and Toronto agreements. As producers of these data we reserve the right to be the first to publish a genome-wide analysis of the data we have generated.

Are there any human genes found in zebrafish?

A few notable human genes have no clearly identifiable zebrafish orthologue; for example, the leukaemia inhibitory factor ( LIF ), oncostatin M ( OSM) or interleukin-6 ( IL6) genes, although the receptors lifra, lifrb, osmr and il6r are clearly present in the zebrafish genome.