Does MIT allow reptiles?


Can You Auscultate the heart of a reptile?

Auscultation of the heart of a reptile is problematic. There is friction between the stethoscope and the scales, and generally only low amplitude heart sounds can be heard. Doppler monitors are a useful alternative for the assessment of heart rate and rhythm, and subjective assessment of blood pressure, in reptiles.

Can you use a Doppler Monitor on a reptile?

There is friction between the stethoscope and the scales, and generally only low amplitude heart sounds can be heard. Doppler monitors are a useful alternative for the assessment of heart rate and rhythm, and subjective assessment of blood pressure, in reptiles.

Should we measure the affective state of reptiles?

Reliable tools to objectively assess affective state, and consequently welfare, of reptiles would better allow those caring for reptiles to identify deficiencies in wellbeing and to evaluate management strategies employed to improve health and welfare.

How reliable are indicators of welfare for reptiles?

Reliable indicators of welfare for reptiles need to be identified. Current guidelines for the captive management of reptiles utilize resource-based, rather than animal-based indicators; the latter being a more direct reflection of affective state.

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What are the most common physical health signs in reptiles?

Warwick et al. (2013) describes common detrimental physical health signs in reptiles, including rostral abrasions, thermal burns, ventral dermatoses, and pica. Rostral abrasions, for instance, are mostly associated with abnormal repetitive behaviors [5], which can be a maladaptive or malfunctional sign of negative welfare [74].

What is the role of Doppler monitors in the evaluation of reptiles?

Doppler monitors are a useful alternative for the assessment of heart rate and rhythm, and subjective assessment of blood pressure, in reptiles. Physical contact with the reptile is still required, and availability may be a limiting factor.

How to assess stress in reptiles?

Topics in Medicine and Surgery How to Assess Stress in Reptiles 1 Stress Behavioral Measurement. Behavioral adaption is considered the optimal response by the animal to an external stressor. … 2 Autonomous Nervous Measurement of Stress. … 3 Neuroendocrine Measurement of Stress. … 4 Hematological Measurement of Stress. … 5 Conclusions.

Where to place a Doppler probe on a lizard?

In lizards, the Doppler® probe should generally be placed in the same area a stethoscope would be placed on a dog or cat. In a few species such as monitor lizards, the heart is found much more caudal then one would expect. You will need to place the probe on the very caudal aspect of the thoracic cavity.

Are there any reptiles that monitor anesthesia?

Monitoring anesthesia in reptiles differs somewhat from doing so in mammals. Palpebral and corneal reflexes are reliable in those species in which they can be elicited (ie, chelonians, crocodilians, most lizards, but no snakes).

What is a Doppler probe used for in reptiles?

Doppler probes are extremely useful for evaluating and monitoring cardiac function in reptiles. Doppler probes can be used to evaluate the flow of blood in various parts of the animal’s body, aid in location of vessels for venipuncture, monitor heart rate and give subjective information about cardiac function.

What types of reptiles can be examined by ultrasonography?

Most squamate reptiles (snakes and lizards) and crocodilians are easily examined as their anatomy creates few challenges. The scale structure of some animals, especially those possessing osteoderms, can make ultrasonographic examination very difficult.

How do reptiles Shun blood away from the lungs?

In times of oxygen deprivation (diving in some reptiles, consumption of large prey in snakes), reptiles can shunt blood away from the lungs. Right to left cardiac shunting in the non-crocodilian heart can be facilitated by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and action of the muscular and vertical ridge.

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How do you calculate the heart rate of a reptile?

Based on allometric scaling of bodyweight a simple formula for heart rate is 33.4kg-0.25. Reptiles that are warming up in the morning have higher heart rates than those cooling down later in the day.

How is the anatomy of the great vessels different in reptiles?

The anatomy of the great vessels is quite different from that of mammals and can be confusing to uninitiated. Adequate knowledge of normal anatomy and function is paramount in assessing health and performing certain clinical procedures. Reptile cardiovascular physiology is also significantly different from that of mammals.

What are the causes of poor Reptile Welfare?

Several factors have led to the current poor state of reptile welfare. They include: the false belief (promoted by reptile sellers) that reptiles are simple, highly adaptable animals that do well in captivity;poor quality information supplied to purchasers of reptiles;

Why are so many captive reptiles endangered?

As a result, many captive reptiles live lives of emptiness, frustration and various states of deprivation. This diminishes their welfare and causes them to suffer. Several factors have led to the current poor state of reptile welfare.

How do you measure positive emotion in reptiles?

Exploratory behavior, affiliative behavior, vocalizations, facial expressions, anticipatory behavior and play have all been used for assessment and monitoring of positive emotion and have been investigated in reptiles to varying extents [14,18].

What is behavioural change in reptiles?

Behavioural change in reptiles, as in other animals, is often the primary indicator of disturbance, injury or disease. Just as a behavioural sign may be an indicator of stress or a physical problem, a physical sign may be an indicator of a behavioural problem, and… Expand

How can we improve animal welfare in the reptile industry?

Industrialized-style care opposes animal welfare, it is as simple as that. Here are three key points we can focus on to establish a Fourth, more productive Era of greater animal welfare within the reptile hobby: Show newcomers to the reptile industry that the industrial standard for breeding is not the standard for keeping individual pet reptiles.

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What are the signs of septicemia in reptiles?

Open-mouth breathing, discharge from the nose, and difficulty breathing are frequent signs. Septicemia Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Adequate housing, a good diet, and routine parasite control will help to minimize disease in pet reptiles, as with other animals. Septicemia, caused by bacteria in the blood, is a common cause… read more

Do reptiles react to novelty stimuli?

Moszuti et al. (2017) investigated response to novelty in two species of reptile, the red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria) and the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). The tortoises displayed an overall anxiety-like response when placed in a novel environment, and neck extension appeared to be a plausible sign of anxiety in this species.

Is your reptile stressed?

Stress, as an adaptive response of any animal to a stimulus that presents a threat to homeostasis, can occur in reptiles. Yet, many veterinarians fail to recognize the signs of stress in reptiles.

Where to place the Doppler probe in a tortoise?

In chelonians, the Doppler probe should be placed in the area between the neck and the fr ont limb, aiming to the heart. Figure 1 4. Tortoise positioned for lapar otomy.

What can radiography tell us about lizards and crocodiles?

In lizards and crocodilians, radiography is a useful tool to evaluate skeletal changes (e.g., metabolic bone disease) and visceral organs and to diagnose foreign bodies and masses ( Fig. 26 ). Fig. 26. Female prehensile-tailed skink ( Corucia zebrata) with coelomic effusion (A) caused by a ruptured follicle, and postoperative view (B),

What is the role of radiography in reptile medicine?

Radiography and ultrasonography are important diagnostic tools in the field of reptile medicine (Silverman and Janssen, 1996 ). In order to apply radiography and ultrasonography effectively, it is essential to know the normal anatomy of the reptile species being evaluated. Most reptiles do not require anesthesia for radiography.

Why are amphibians used for ultrasonography?

For at least three reasons, amphibians are well suited for ultrasonographic examination: (1) They do not have external structures such as fur, feathers, or scales that may impede imaging; (2) their coelom usually contains some fluid that helps enhance the quality of the images.